POLI2001 Ideas In Political Science


Turn your draft essay plan in to a fully referenced research article.

Your essay should include the following:

You name and student number are not included in the word count

You must clearly state your topic for the essay. It should not be included in the word count.

A short introduction to your argument that summarizes your overall argument and the research question it answers.

You should have at least three arguments that are based on the resources you have consulted.

A concluding paragraph, or series of paragraphs, that bring together all the arguments in your argument and provide an answer to the essay’s question.


All over the world, movements have been visible starting from Latin America and Africa, Asia or America. People have struggled for change in society.

Similar movements have been seen around the globe, many of them initiated by common citizens for the purpose of gaining democracy.

This essay will highlight the key reasons for this movement.

For this debate, the thesis is to examine whether movement can help revitalize democracy.

Haynes (2013) believes that politics has more evolved into a business.

This business relies on large sums of money and not harnessing the talents or allegiance of citizens.

There have been many other factors that have led to the situation in which people are forced to rebel for the protection of their rights within the society they live.

The fundamental concept of democracy is fighting for the people against oppressive situations in the society.

It should be the first concern of any government or ruling party to listen to the views of the people and create a ruling system that respects their rights.

Park (2008) commented that social movements can be open to everyone, because they are a collective effort by members of the society to overcome oppression.

The social movement is always inclined towards mass demonstrations in which the common citizens are open to their thoughts and actions towards the country and the political environment.

Many people are willing to work together for a common cause.

Robteutscher (2005) argues that minorities are often the ones who suffer in a society.

It is often seen that the primary causes for a country’s movement to democracy are those who want to give the opportunity and rights back to the minorities.

According to Park (2008), the main motivation for social movements is to challenge the current power and political authority of particular countries or societies and create better places for all people to live.

Wittes (2008) also argued that social movements are an important part of the decision-making process.

Many evidences show that citizens can protest against oppression of the ruler.

Everybody wants to have their own rights.

If the situation becomes so dire that people cannot solve the problem, then they revolt against the oppressors and fight for democracy.

A social movement allows people to express their opinions and point of view on a topic.

It must be understood that the government decides what is right and wrong for people living in a particular state.

But it is possible that the government’s decision might not match the opinions of the average citizen.

Smith (2008) points out that every society has an intellectual community of people who contribute to the social decision-making process.

They make the final decision about what is best for the country’s citizens.

But, the process is not responsible to determine the end result of arguments and discussion.

Robteutscher 2005.

It is common to find that the government makes decisions that are not in accordance with the common citizens’ choices (Polletta 2012).

These decisions were not satisfactory to the intellectual group and they led them to revolt for their rights and justice.

This revolution is nothing other than movements that end up in the wage of a war for democratic values.

Robteutscher (2005, p. 3) revealed that each nation has a history full of revolutionary movements. These were fights that people had to take because their rights weren’t being fulfilled.

Robteutscher, 2005 commented that although the history of the revolutionary struggle of citizens for their rights is not over, there are many evidences in the present day.

Polletta (2012) has highlighted how protestors in America protested the taking of Donald Trump’s oath on the day that he was elected President of the United States.

In this regard, it is possible to argue that Donald Trump became President of the USA only because of the people. However, many people were unhappy with the People’s decision.

The movement was evident to all and was a clear sign of democracy fighting in modern times.

Park (2008) states that movement cannot improve democracy in a nation.

Sometimes, movements lead to the replacement of existing policies drawn by the authorities.

People who are involved in a movement are people who wish to change the existing situation and want to generate new ideas.

Park (2008) comments that the proposed changes or ideas by those who organize movements may not be sufficient to help a country become a successful one.

Isin (2013) stated that policies are not created without a great deal of planning. They are only built after considering all possible scenarios and the consequences.

Isin (2013) said that leaders responsible for managing a country have to consider every aspect of the final decision.

Leaders are not only accountable for their country, they are also responsible to other countries.

It is because of this reason that the decisions made by the government must be followed by the people and should not be challenged.

Haynes (2013) points out that decisions made in government can be completely based on their own interests and don’t take into account the circumstances of the citizens.

The people have to suffer. This is when they rise up and revolt against the oppressive conditions.

Common citizens in Libya have to get out on the streets to protest against Gaddafi’s oppressive nature.

People could no longer confront the oppressive nature he had created and they must think about their own situation and devise a plan to combat it (Haynes, 2013).

This led to everyone being freed from Gaddafi’s oppression, and they could have a better life (Guilhot 2005).

Revolution is essential.

This is a crucial step to revive democracy in a country. Human beings are born free, and can’t be subjugated by others.

Individuals should be confident that they are capable of fighting for their rights.

Although revolutions in democracy do not always result in government change, sometimes people rebel to get what is missing.

The major countries in the developed world have seen revolutions over issues like inequality in gender, race, and religion.

According to Goodwin et. al., there is a widening gap in American pay structures between men (goodwin et. al.

This is a very common and long-awaited debate, which has been seen as a form for revolution against the current policies and laws of the government of that nation.

There is no need to completely change the current government policies. But it does require that the government think of ways to improve the lives of people and take into account their points of view.

Della Porta (2009) said that democracy implies equal rights and opportunities for all citizens.

This is sometimes not the case and the government fails meet people’s expectations.

When people ask for their own rights, it is usually a right thing they want.

To be able to help all citizens of the country, the government needs to consider every individual.

Blaug (2016, Schwarzmantel) have provided a perspective that can be used to understand the revolutionary activities being carried out for equal rights and opportunities in democratic countries.

Blaug and Schwarzmantel (2016) claim that revolutions are often accompanied by better communication between people.

It happens when people protest in mass; it is due to good communication between members of the society.

This must be understood so that the government can respond to the people’s demands.

This is only possible if enough people join the cause and fight for it (Carr 2007).

It’s when a large number of people come together in support of a common cause. It’s called a mass movement.

When we look at the current situation, it is clear that social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter have made it easier for people to communicate and share their thoughts and beliefs.

This is what happens when people share their thoughts and beliefs with one another. They then come together in common cause to defeat oppression (Castells, 2015).

The people have more options to protest against such situations thanks to technological and communication advancements.

While all mass movements exist, it is not new. However, the situation has changed in recent times.

It is easy to see that democracy is truly for the people by and of people. This was evident in the discussion about the importance of democracy as well as how democratic citizens can protest the oppressive natures of the ruling party.

The government should not be focused on the Global agenda, but on the benefits and rights that the people of the nation.

Although it is obvious that the nation’s ruling authority has the power to determine the main perspectives and ruling perspective of any country, the real goal should be the benefit of all citizens.

Democracy gives the ability to the people to rebel against their current situation and fight for their rights.

It is evident that the people are gaining more power and it has been easier for them to express their views before the government or the ruling parties.

Blaug R. and Schwarzmantel J.

Columbia University Press.

Achieving democracy through neoliberalism. The role of social justiy in democratic education.

Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 5(2): pp.1-20.

Networks of outrage & hope: Social movements within the Internet age.

London: John Wiley & Sons.

De Sousa Santos B. and Rodriguez Garavito C.A.

Globalization from below: A path to a cosmopolitan justice.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Democracy and social movements.

New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Black Reconstruction: A History of Black Folk’s Contribution to the Reconstruction of Democracy, 1860-1880.

Transaction Publishers.

Polletta, F.

Passionate politics. Emotions, social movements.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The democracy makers: Human rights, international order and human rights.

New York: Columbia University Press.

Democracy and civil societies in the Third World: Politics & new political movements.

London: John Wiley & Sons.

Democracy, citizenship, the global city.

Democracy and social progress: A history of South Korean student movements between 1980 and 2000.

Bern: Peter Lang.

Freedom is an endless meeting: Democracy within American social movements.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Democracy and the Role Associations: Political and organizational contexts.

Psychology Press.

Social movements for global democratic democracy.

Three types of movements.

Journal of Democracy 19(3), pp.7-12.

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