GNED 130 Principles Of Sociology


Introduce the paper with a description and brief definition of the sociological theories.

Describe the theoretical sociological view.

This theoretical perspective shows how the world looks.

c. Explain the sociallogical issue that you are discussing using the viewpoint of your chosen sociological theory.



The paper below focuses on the different sociological theories. It will also be addressing the subject of aging.

The major sociological problem of today is aging. Most people are getting older very quickly.

There are many reasons for the aging process.

The human race is facing serious problems with aging and mortality. People are living longer and more active than they used to.

There are many causes for aging, which can cause physical and psychological changes to the body.

There are several sociological theories that can help to explain these problems.

These theories include conflict theory, sociological theory, and many more.

The cognitive decline in people begins as early as their 20s.

Young people and teenagers lose their ability to do the things that they should.

These sociological theories may be helpful in explaining this problem.

Two aspects of psychological and biological analysis can help to explain the many causes of this phenomenon.

Statement by Thesis

This essay will focus on sociological aspects, such as the functionalist and conflict theories on the topic of aging among human beings.

Functionalism or functionalist theory is one major theory in sociology. It appears to be fundamental in understanding social issues (Ritzer, Stepnisky 2017).

Emile Durkheim is the first to have mentioned this theory.

This theory focuses only on the macro-levels within the social structure.

This theory does not consider the micro-structure of the society.

It focuses on the everyday things of life of people.

This theory focuses both on the factors that influence the social status and long-term life of individuals (Ritzer & Stepnisky 2017).

Herbert Spencer and Talcott Parsons are the most directly related to this theory. Robert K. Merton is also a possible candidate.

This theory covers almost all aspects of society and explains how they can contribute to the stability of the whole society (Scott, 2012).

All parts of society are more than their individual parts.

Every component of society should function properly so it can contribute to the stability in the whole society.

Durkheim described society as an organism.

Each part is crucial to ensure a stable society (Henslin, et al. 2015).

According to this theory, no one individual can function and must work together in order to attain stable positions.

This theory also states that if one of the parts fails to meet its objectives, all must work together.

A good example of functionalist theory’s aspect is the fact that scholarships are provided by the state.

After they receive their education, they find jobs.

The students then find jobs and pay taxes, which in turn will help to maintain the country’s economic stability.

This functional theory is a way to show how the social institutions are used as a collective tool to meet both the individual and the social needs.

Functionalists view society as an interconnected system and their parts are dependent upon each other. Durkheim, 2013.

Each part is affected and influenced by the others.

Schools and colleges often offer students a vast array of technology.

Many people are returning to colleges and schools to learn about these new technologies.

This is because they are required to learn these technologies at work.

In recent years, the number of women in work has increased dramatically.

This is why policies regarding sexual harassment and discrimination at work have been updated to protect them (Davidson (2012)

This functionalist theory explains the social effects of social elements by using the words functional or dysfunctional.

You can describe these terms by simply saying that “functional” means elements that contribute to the stability of a society, and “dysfunctional”, means elements that disturb the stability of the country (Sylvester et. al., 2012).

Some activities can be both functional or dysfunctional.

One example is crime.

It is dysfunctional in the sense that it leads to violence, oppression or even death.

It can also be useful in that it contributes to a better cohesion of society.

Sociologists identified two functions within the society.

These two types are known as latent and manifest functions (Everett (2013).

The manifest functions are the ones that can be easily identified and are of a specific nature.

Contrary to popular belief, latent functions can be hidden and not understood.

A large number of children are failing in school because of their environment. This is due to the dual-earner family and single-parent families.

Lack of parental supervision is the main reason for this (Frantzeskaki Loorbach & Meadowcroft (2012)).

Conflict Theory

The evolution of social changes is influenced by conflict theory.

Karl Marx, Alexander (2014) invented this theory.

This theory explains why tensions and conflicts can occur when there is an inequitable distribution of power, money and resources.

The power concept is defined as the possession of wealth and material resources.

It also includes the political control and the social institutions that contribute to society (Alexander (2014).

Wright (2016). The conflict theory focuses on the fact that there is a class conflict between the bourgeoisie, the capitalists, and the proletariat, the poor.

This theory became more popular due to its implications for the rise in capitalism’s social status and power politics within Europe.

This was the most prominent prospect. It was all about the conflict between the two classes because of their economic status within the society.

This theory was also born out of uneven resource distribution between the two classes.

Marx claimed that the concept of producing t consensus was located in the social superstructure’. (Shilling (2012)

Marx explained that the socioeconomic condition of the proletariat started to get worsened when the bourgeoisie became more powerful with their capitalist power.

It was urgent that the proletariat group stood up to this injustice and inform the whole world about their worsening conditions.

These conflicts led to the proletariat revolution.

This would most likely ease the tensions between the two classes.

Marx said that if the change encourages capitalism, then the revolts will grow.

Alexander, 2014: Instead of this, the socialism concept would maintain peace and prosperity in society.

Over the years, this theory has been reworked, adapted and modified by many critics.

The conflict theory was also developed by other theorists. It has been used to develop many other theories, including the feminist theory.


Aging is a contemporary phenomenon in today’s world.

For human beings, aging refers to the accumulation and progression of physical and psychological changes over time (Lopez–Otin et. al. 2013, 2013).

These changes include social, psychological, as well as physical changes.

Many factors can lead to aging.

As an example, aging can slow down the body’s ability to react.

These theories relate to aging and include damage concept and accumulation of harm (DNA Oxidation). (Collins (2014)

It is possible that the biological systems can also fail during the aging process.

This may also be due to cell death.

These aging processes can have some negative effects.

These are:

Children may lose their hearing when they hear sounds higher than 20 KHz.

Female fertility can drop after the middle 20s.

Cognitive decline could begin in the middle 20s.

The average age of menopause in women is between 49 and 52 years.

After 30 years, hair can fall out in young people.

Young people may lose reflex action very early in life.

A second threat is the possibility of developing cataracts in the eyes.

The effects of photoaging, i.e., wrinkles on the face may lead to wrinkles.

being out in the sun for too long.

Social structures are required to satisfy the social needs.

The three main theories behind this functional theory include disengagement theory, activity and continuity theories.

The disengagement theory explains that the disengagement theory is rational because the peope victim of aging has seen their relatives and friends die as a result of aging.

This is why they also expect their own death (Kastenbaum (2013)).

Different ways can women and men get disengaged from society.

In general, women have a greater effect on the society because of their socio-emotional circumstances. Men have a greater impact due to their career and men have a smaller impact on it.

People become disengaged from society when they retire, and as they get older, lose their ability to work and gain knowledge (Kastenbaum 2013,).

The people can continue to be active even in their later years, according to the study.

Their integration into the society and their physical and mental health can help them stay mentally and physically fit.

They should not withdraw from the society, but they should continue to be active.

According to the continuity theory, an aging adult will have the same activities, personality traits, and relationships as their younger counterparts (Kastenbaum 2013).

You can view this topic of aging from the perspective conflict theory.

The thinking process of an individual is a key factor in the ageing process (Kastenbaum 2013).

Many people believe that losing memory can lead to aging.

This theory stresses the negative consequences of aging for human beings.

This theory emphasizes the negative views of old age and social discrimination against the elderly (Victor 2013).

This theory suggests the old-age workers are considered to be less productive in the economy. The higher salaries they receive (for their seniority, benefits, and other reasons) make them viewed as people who encourage the proletariat, or the labor classes (Kastenbaum (2013)).

So, this sociological research has shown that aging can have a profound effect on how people see themselves and their actions within the society.

These theories of functionalism, conflict theory and other related concepts can be applied to the view of the younger members of society and their perception of elderly people (Kastenbaum (2013)).

Ageing does not mean that older people will be excluded from society. However, it can sometimes give them the right to seniority and experience.


It can be concluded that aging is an important social issue, and that it can have a large impact on the elderly.

Because people age at some point, aging is a natural process.

However, this does not mean that they will be removed from the community because they are no longer able to work as efficiently or at the same time as before.

This will give them a special place in the community.

Also, the conflict theory has negative effects because older age people earn higher salaries and inflict bourgeoisie dominance on the society.

Functional theory also suggests different outcomes such as disengagement, activity by the old age persons and their continuity.

Society must provide special attention to the entire aging process.


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