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Posted: October 11th, 2021

How to Properly Cite Sources with Chicago Style Citation

Chicago style citation, also referred to as Chicago Referencing Style or Chicago citation in the US and Canada is a style of higher education academic citation that originated at the University of Chicago in 1906. University of Chicago format citations come in two styles: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date system.

They differ from other common styles such as MLA, APA or Harvard styles because they do not require an explicit page number for each cited item. Chicago-style footnotes are indicated by a superscript note number, while Chicago Author Date system references list information about authorship without any punctuation between words within the reference entry itself.

The Chicago citation style is the method established by the University of Chicago Press for documenting sources used in academic research paper writing. Oxford is a citation style that uses footnotes at the bottom of the page rather than in the in-text citation styles used in Chicago. This method was developed by Oxford University Press and does not endnotes acknowledge.

Similarly, the Oxford style has a superscript number that is inserted at the point in your essay where you cite an author’s work. Both Chicago and Oxford have a superscript number which may cause confusion when citing sources. There are more examples of similarities within the bibliographic information, use in social sciences, publication information, and other relevant information on the two writing styles.

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Table of Contents

Introduction to Chicago referencing style

The Chicago Manual of Style notes that the Chicago system “is widely used by humanities scholars, including literary critics and art historians,” although it has been increasingly adopted for use in social sciences since the mid-2000s since its inception in the University of Chicago.

Chicago-style citation is commonly used in humanities disciplines such as literature, history, or art history because it does not require an explicit page number for each cited item. Furthermore, these disciplines require a lot of quotation marks and full publication details when referencing the end product. Also, this style is considered the best in referencing abbreviated titles, Youtube videos, four or more authors’ work, multiple authors, live performances, and secondary sources.

Chicago Referencing Format

The Chicago Manual of Style uses notes and bibliography style which can be adapted to the author date system described in the examples below with the addition of author names. Chicago reference notes are indicated by a superscript note number, while Chicago Author Date system references list information about authorship without any punctuation between words within the bibliography entry itself.

In this reference Style, subsequent citations are formatted as shortened form. Shortened citations or shortened version are made up of the author’s last name or authors’ names, year published, and the page number. Only the first author The article title is replaced by an in-text citation. Page numbers are not required.

Example;

Format, Sources with Four or More Authors: In a note, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). In the bibliography, list all the authors that appear on the title page

Markopolos, Harry, Frank Casey, Neil Chelo, Gaytri Kachroo, and Michael Ocrant. Why Essay Prince is the Best. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.

Intext Citation: (Markopolos, et al. 2010)

The Basics of Citing in Chicago

Depending on the Chicago Referencing Style being used, references will either be listed in a bibliography at the end of your essay or inserted directly into your text within parenthesis. In both cases, Chicago-style reference entries are written according to specific guidelines which can get more complicated than you might expect due to compound authorship and multiple citations from the same source.

If you consecutively cite the same source two or more times in a note (complete or shortened), you may use the word “Ibid” instead. However, they must be arranged alphabetically in the bibliography. The footnotes on every new page will not be arranged alphabetically. The bibliography entry for Chicago format notes and bibliography will list all authors’ names, or editors if no author is identified.

Detailed Chicago Referencing Style Guidelines

Chicago Format Notes and Bibliography Format

The Chicago Manual of Style offers detailed notes and bibliography style for citations, which requires that each reference is listed in full at the end of your essay. The Chicago-style note entry format includes:

+ Author name(s) or organization/institution

+ Year of publication (publication date)

+ Title of the work, in italics or quotations (book title or journal)

+ Page numbers where appropriate Chicago format notes are indicated by a superscript note number. Chicago Author Date references list information about authorship without any punctuation between words within the reference entry itself. Examples: where the author name is John Smith;

(Smith, 2006)

Baldwin, James. “Notes of a Native Son.” In Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son Chicago: Beacon Press, 2011. Print

NOTE: When referencing a document with a digital object identifier (DOI) in Chicago format, the information regarding the digital object identifier should be given in the following format: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.379. The database name may also be added or one can simply omit it.

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Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

The Chicago Manual of Style is a guide that walks through the Chicago formatting. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition highlights how the Chicago reference differs from other styles, such as MLA, APA, and Harvard. The article title, web pages, Youtube video title, or chapter title should have quotation marks.

The two systems Chicago format is considered a note and bibliography format, which means Chicago-style bibliography will be included at the end of your work. Chicago-style reference entries are written according to specific guidelines that get more complicated than what many people may expect because of compound authorship and multiple citations from one source. A page range is included in a bibliography to a source that is part of a larger paginated work. The page range for the entire article is often listed right after the volume and issue numbers.

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References in the body of your essay

This is also referred to as “inline citations.” Chicago-style citation is a system that divides your references into two categories and cites the source in different ways depending on what you’re referencing:

The two systems Chicago source citations come in two varieties: (I) notes and bibliography and (II) author-date. Chicago referencing is most often used by humanities disciplines like literature or history; other styles are preferred in science writing where references should be cited at the end of your work in numerical order.

Footnotes

Chicago format first footnote is often used more in Liberal Arts and Humanities articles. Chicago format footnotes are sometimes also called “in-text citations.” These footnotes are what you put at the end of a sentence or paragraph to show what the source is manual of style 17th of Chicago coined by the University of Chicago.

The Footnotes are generally not italicized because it might be hard to read them if they’re italicized, but the footnotes can be underlined or bolded in full details. The journal or article name must be an abbreviated title.

The University of Chicago Referencing Format defines the different ways to reference sources in your essay, for example with numbers or by author name. This citation method uses parenthetical notes (footnotes) within the body text.

Footnote examples

In a footnote referencing system, you indicate a reference by: Putting a small number above the line of the type directly following the source material. This number is called a note identifier.

Content of Chicago footnotes

Chicago footnotes are used when you want to reference a source of the same work in the body of your writing. Chicago notes can also be found at the end of an article or book, these references will usually have more publication information about it and they would most likely point out if something is controversial in text messages.

Chicago-style citation formats may vary depending on what type In other words of source you’re citing especially on a master’s degree paper. Chicago citation formats may vary depending on what type of source you are referencing whether a book title or journal. Chicago format footnotes can be used in the same place when the publication author’s name is not mentioned in your writing (like if it was a book).

Why do we use footnotes?

Chicago-style footnotes are used when the author’s name is not mentioned in your writing (like if it was a book). Chicago format footnotes can be used when no author’s name is given. Chicago notes generally do not have an entry for ‘author’ or ‘editor’.

Chicago referencing Footnotes vs Endnotes

Footnotes vs Endnotes. Chicago format footnotes are often used more in Liberal Arts and Humanities articles. Chicago footnotes can be used when the author’s name is not mentioned in your writing (like if it was a book). Chicago footnotes can be used when no author’s name is given. Chicago format notes generally do not have an entry for ‘author’ or ‘editor’.

In Chicago, references are listed in numbered footnotes or endnotes. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that notes be placed at the bottom of a page on which they occur rather than collected together under one reference number at the back of your work.

How do I create Chicago format footnotes?

You use Chicago citations for sources by inserting a superscript number after the punctuation mark containing your last quoted word, paraphrased phrase or reference to another source within your sentence. The following examples are good Chicago citations for reference:

Rath, Chicago-Style Citation Example. Hershey PA: IGI Global Publishing, Chicago Format In-Text Citation 2013, 39-68.

Chicago format requires you to use a comma before the page number when referencing books with more than one author and journal articles. The Chicago Manual of Style has specific rules about Chicago footnotes. Chicago format also requires a period after the parenthetical reference mark, even if it is an abbreviation or acronym in the bibliographic information.

Chicago format Footnotes vs Endnotes

Footnotes and references in Chicago referencing should be written with a number followed by a period (or full stop). Chicago-style footnotes must also include information about what type of source is being cited and where it can be found.

Chicago-style endnotes should include a symbol that is different from the footnote symbols, such as an asterisk or dagger. Chicago Referencing Format defines the different ways to reference sources in your essay, for example with numbers or by author name in the full citation.

Chicago footnotes are generally not italicized because it might be hard to keep track of which words belong to the footnote and which ones do not. Chicago-style footnotes can be used when no author’s name is given or any other personal communications.

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How do I create endnotes for Chicago Style?

Chicago-style endnotes are referenced in the body of your work on specific pages. Chicago footnotes can be used when no author’s name is given or if it is a book with no author listed. Chicago format notes generally do not have an entry for ‘author’ or ‘editor’.

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

To create Chicago-style references, you’ll need to include the Chicago format style same source. Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008. “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (5): 1397-1402.

N/A. “Chicago Format Citation Example.” Chicago Citing, http://chicagomanualofstyleonline.com/chicago-manual-of-style/chicago-referencing/. Accessed 11 July 2015.

Using Ibid. in footnotes

Ibid means that the author has already referenced this particular source and you are required to only write the page number in your reference list at a later stage of writing or publication (i.e. when it’s published).

What is Chicago brackets footnotes?

Chicago brackets footnotes are citations for sources within the text of a paper itself.

What does Chicago parentheses citing mean?

Chicago parenthesis referencing means that you must place your source in between two brackets.

What Chicago brackets are used for?

Chicago brackets citation is a method of footnoting that replaces endnotes, which are referred to as Chicago notes and bibliography system.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

In Chicago citation for print journals, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008. “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (5): 1397-1402.

N/A. Chicago Citation Example. Chicago reference citing, http://chicagomanualofstyleonline.com/chicago-manual-of-style/chicago-referencing/. Accessed 11 July 2015.

Online Journals

Kulik, M. 2008. A new family of generalized low rank approximation. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (1402). Chicago Reference Citation Example Chicago format Citing Chicago Manual of Style accessed July 11 2015 URL

Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

In the case of Chicago citation for e-books and online books, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008. “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (1402). Chicago Citing Manual of Style, accessed July 11 2015 URL

Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

In Chicago citation for chapters in a book, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” In Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Applications and Trends, edited by Debasis Rath, 39-68. Hershey PA: IGI Global Publishing.

Example of Chicago referencing for books with one author

In Chicago citation for books with one author, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008. “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (1402).

Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

In Chicago Citation for Kindle or e-reader, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (1402).

Example of Chicago Citation for Journal article

The most basic entry for a journal article consists of the author name(s), article title, journal name, volume number, year published, and page numbers. In Chicago citation for journal articles, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 58 (1402).

Chicago Citation for Referencing images

In Chicago citation for referencing images, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.” Electronic Illustration Figure 12.

How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

In Chicago citation for chapters or articles from a book, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low Rank Approximation.” In Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Applications and Trends, edited by Debasis Rath, 39-68.

Citing sources with no author

In Chicago citation with no author, Chicago format references are abbreviated as follows:

“A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.”

Citing Direct quotes

In Chicago citation for direct quotes, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

“A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.” Kulik 2008.

Chicago Reference List Example for Magazine Articles and Newspapers

In Chicago example of reference list for magazine articles, Chicago format references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.” Chicago-Style Citation Chicago: Chicago Magazine 44.

Chicago Reference List more examples for Web Sources, Dissertations and Theses

In Chicago example of reference list for web sources, Chicago references are abbreviated as follows:

Kulik M. 2008 “A New Family of Generalized Low-Rank Approximation.” Chicago-Style Citation Style Chicago: Chicago Guide.

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Frequently asked questions about Chicago footnotes

Why would I use Chicago citations instead of Harvard referencing?

Chicago-style source references differ from the standard author-date formats in how they structure the text of the citation. Chicago-style is also more commonly used in scientific research.

What Chicago bracket is used for?

Chicago brackets citation is a method of footnoting that replaces endnotes, which are referred to as Chicago notes and bibliography system. You use Chicago brackets for sources by inserting a superscript number after the punctuation mark containing your last idea, which is followed by a page reference to indicate where you found it.

How do you reference footnotes?

First, the Chicago format footnote is placed at the end of a sentence, while later Chicago footnotes are placed directly after an inserted number.

Does Chicago use footnotes or in-text citations?

The Chicago Chicago Manual of Style uses footnotes and not in-text references.

How do you write a reference in Chicago format?

When Chicago referencing, you should include the author’s surname and initials of the work in italics.

Is Chicago format double spaced?

Chicago Chicago Manual of Style is double spaced. It can however be single-spaced thus one needs to refer to the guide offered by the tutor for further guidance.

Does the Chicago format use a references list or bibliography?

Chicago Chicago Manual of Style uses a reference list instead of a bibliography.

How do you shorten a citation in Chicago?

In Chicago Style, subsequent citations are formatted as shortened notes: The basic structure of the first shortened citation consists of the author(s)’s last name(s), the title of the work (usually shortened if more than four words), and the page number(s).

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